資訊管理學報

洪新原;黃于紋;賴慧敏;
頁: 403-443
日期: 2015/10
摘要: 過去研究在探討「為何人們願意分享知識到知識管理系統」的研究問題上,出現許多不一致的結果,莫衷一是,因此對於影響人們為何分享知識的相關研究結果加以彙總分析(Meta-Analysis)是必要的。本研究以彙總分析法,以科技部最新公佈的前30名期刊、知名的5個國際研討會(AMCIS, ECIS, PACIS, ICIS, HICSS)及2本廣泛討論知識分享的期刊,選出在2002-2012年間已發表影響個人知識分享主題的實證研究,以研究場景為虛擬社群或組織知識庫做為區分,共83篇研究進行分析,研究發現:(1)對於虛擬社群成員而言,影響「知識分享頻率」的關鍵因素為知識自我效能、結構社會資本、認同、關係社會資本、社會互動連結、利他主義、聲譽和承諾;影響「知識分享品質」的關鍵因素為信任、共同的語言、認同、社會互動連結和利他主義;影響「知識分享態度」的關鍵因素為利他主義、互惠和信任;影響「知識分享意圖」的關鍵因素為聲譽、知識分享態度、知識自我效能和知識分享主觀規範。(2)對於組織員工而言,影響「知識分享頻率」的關鍵因素為承諾和信任;影響「知識分享態度」的關鍵因素為互惠、資訊科技促進分享的信念和外在報酬,且外在報酬為負向的影響;影響「知識分享意圖」的關鍵因素為知識分享主觀規範和知識分享態度。研究成果可供組織管理者或社群管理者之參考指標,以及後續實證研究的參考。
關鍵字: 知識分享;知識貢獻;知識管理;彙總分析;

A Meta-Analysis of Critical Factors for Knowledge Sharing


Abstract: Purpose-Inconsistent results exist in previous regarding why people share their knowledge. Thus, a meta-analysis is required to analyze relevant studies. Design/methodology/approach-This study analyzed 83 empirical studies selected from the top 30 journals in information management, five well-known international conferences (namely, AMCIS, ECIS, PACIS, ICIS, HICSS), and two journals in which knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively, during 2002-2012. Findings-The results indicate the following: (1)For virtual community members, eight factors affect the frequency of knowledge sharing knowledge self-efficacy, structural social capital, identification, relational social capital, social interaction, altruism, reputation, and commitment. Five factors affect quality of knowledge sharing: trust, shared language, identification, social interaction, and altruism. Three factors affect knowledge-sharing attitude: altruism, reciprocity, and trust. Four factors affect knowledge-sharing intention: reputation, knowledge-sharing attitude, knowledge self-efficacy, and the subjective norm of knowledge sharing. (2)For employees, two key factors affect the frequency of knowledge sharing: commitment and trust. Three factors affect knowledge-sharing attitude: reciprocity, information technology, and extrinsic rewards. Two factors affect knowledge-sharing intention: subjective norm of knowledge sharing and knowledge-sharing attitude. Research limitations/implications-In terms of academic contribution, independent variables resulted in conflicts and contradictions in knowledge-sharing behaviors over the past decade. After relevant articles were collected and read, the findings of individual research were analyzed to eliminate all sources of error and find a true relationship between different variables. The results of this study not only provide study maps of key factors that influence knowledge-sharing behaviors but also aid researchers in understanding the current findings in knowledge sharing. Practical implications-This study has several implications for practitioners: (1) Reputation enhances the knowledge-sharing intentions of community members; therefore, if the community provides an appropriate reputation mechanism (such as the ranking list of knowledge sharing, etc.), it will effectively promote members' knowledge-sharing intention. (2) Extrinsic rewards have a negative impact on the knowledge-sharing attitude; thus, the community must pay attention to the negative effects of unfairness or insufficient incentives while designing incentive measures. Originality/value-During the past decade, previous studies found inconsistent results. Thus, a meta-analysis was used to find the key factors that affect knowledge-sharing behavior and to provide researchers with a studying map better deeper understanding of the current findings in knowledge sharing.
Keywords: knowledge sharing;knowledge contribution;knowledge management;meta-analysis;

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